Paul submitted his PhD 'Evaluation of Home Energy Retrofit at Neighbourhood Scale' in 2019, which was awarded in 2020. By combining building simulation and statistical techniques, the PhD methodology predicted neighbourhood energy use by fossil-fuel boilers or electrical heat pumps. Paul also researched pre-pay meters and energy flexible buildings. After his PhD, Paul tutored maths and data analytics, before commencing a research project into blockchain financial instruments that could facilitate transactions by electricity PPAs (Power Purchase Agreements). That current work uses Paul's industry experience in IP networking and internet services.